Greek Island of Crete


One day, Poseidon, god of the sea depths, Minos sent a handsome white bull, so he offered it. Minos also broke the vow, given his patron, and then angry Poseidon Pasiphae bewitched wife of Minos, making her fall in love with the ill-fated bull. The fruit of a fatal and evil passions – Minotaur poluchelovek, polubyk – has become a curse and a disgrace of King Minos.

Wanting to hide from human eyes of the Minotaur, Minos ordered Daedalus, a famous Athenian craftsman who lived in exile in Crete, to build a palace with a complex transition, known to us as the Labyrinth … In 1900, 48-year-old Englishman Arthur Evans began excavations on the island of Crete . Much more than the arguments of science, a former correspondent of the newspaper “Manchester Guardian” inspired the heroes of Greek myths and lines from “The Odyssey”, “The Island of Crete in the middle there is a beautiful sea vinotsvetnogo … Different languages ​​are heard there: There are Pelasgian, living in the city of Knossos. .. There really was king Minos … “.

Homer had already helped archaeologists Heinrich Schliemann, using the “Iliad” as a “guide”, he has managed to unearth Troy and Mycenae. Evans longed to repeat his success in Crete. Of course, no one could assume that under a thick layer of sun-scorched earth lie the ruins of the ancient civilization in Europe. Evans called it “Minoan” after the legendary Minos. After the sensational excavations in Crete have found the myths are not flesh and blood, as perhaps like Evans. But a lot of them no longer appear just a literary accident. For example, the fact that Zeus – the father of gods and men – born on Crete, is now perceived as quite natural event. … Zeus, as you know, was the son of the earth goddess Rhea and the God of heaven, Crohn’s.

In accordance with the prediction Krohn had to die at the hands of his own son, and to protect themselves against the encroachments of the immortal heirs, he swallowed them as birth and kept in his stomach. Ray was inconsolable, and, when he came to give birth to the last period of her son, she took refuge in Crete where Zeus and gave birth. And that father did not suspect anything, he slipped zapelenuty stone. Zeus hid in two caves – dictates and Ida (both archaeologists discovered large Minoan sanctuary). Krohn was in the dark until one grown up and matured Zeus came to him and did not fulfill the prediction. Prostrate Krohn swallowed spewed all brothers and sisters of Zeus, including Poseidon and Hera.

Subsequently it to Crete, to the native caves, Zeus brought kidnapped the Phoenician princess Europe, who bore him three sons here: Rhadamanthus, Sarpedon and Minos – the wisest of all the kings of Crete …   Evans was not the first who tried to find Knossos. 20 years before his amateur archaeologist Minos Kalokerinos laid several deep trenches 5 kilometers from Candia (now – Heraklion ). It was here, on Tselepi mullet which means “Hill of the Lord,” Cretan tradition placed Knossos. Deep underground, the contours of the huge building. Found in the ground Kalokerinos items are stored in the building of the British consulate in Kandy, where he worked as a translator. Collection of a successful Greek attracted the attention of archaeologists, but noticing increased interest in the excavations, the Turkish owners of Knossos sharply raised the price of the land – all work had to be suspended for an indefinite period.

In 1886, on Crete came topped with world-famous 63-year-old Schliemann. The ambitious archaeologist, who inflicted their unprofessional excavations irreparable damage Troy and Mycenae, wanted to make another discovery. Money from Schliemann was enough, and he immediately signed a contract to purchase the territory of Knossos, including all that it was. However, counting the olive trees grown on almost owned his land, suddenly discovered that their three times less than required by the contract. Enraged that his – Schliemann! – Inflated, an archaeologist has terminated a deal with the Turks.   Evans came to Crete in 1894-m, being not just a foreigner keen on archeology, but an experienced journalist and historian, passed in the Balkans brutal school of dialogue with the Turkish authorities. Like Schliemann, he met with a collection Kalokerinosa (4 years later it is all burned together with the British Consulate); miniature chalcedony seals myopic eyes Evans distinguished icons previously found no letters.

Dangerous for archeology impatience beginning to burn Evans, he even bought a piece of Knossos, to retain the right to future excavations, but seriously get to work could only 6 years old when Crete was the autonomy and the Greek social activist Joseph Natsidakis helped Evans Knossos purchase of 122,000 piastres.   Ambitions prevented Arthur Evans to focus on scientific research. He could not wait to show the world his discovery – Labyrinth, which he once called “the Palace of Minos”, being, like many, under the hypnotic influence of the myth. Labyrinth excavated at breakneck speed for archeology. Tens of thousands of items were found in warehouses – to deal with all these treasures Evans and lacked neither the time nor the energy. Over the next decade, the majority finds disappeared in the remaining rats and insects eaten labels, but during excavations Evans thought little of the future: they owned inspiration. To his credit I must say that he has not made findings exported outside Greece: priceless masterpieces of ancient art were in museums of Crete and Athens.

No stranger to vanity and epicurean lifestyle, Evans nevertheless spent enormous personal resources for expansion and improvement of the excavation trying to connect at Knossos archaeological value to the tourist attraction. He died in 1935, at the ripe old age, having completed the fundamental four-volume work “The Palace of Minos” and presenting humanity amazing culture that personally learned from historical oblivion. The actual appearance of the palace maze justifies the myth that has developed around it. It was a huge building with a total area of 22 thousand. M2, which had at least 5-6 levels above-ground floors, connected by walkways and stairs, and a number of underground vaults. The number of rooms it has reached thousands – they could easily hide a dozen Minotaur. The architectural complex with a complex layout testified not only about the ability of “Daedalus” – Minoan engineers, but also the high level of the development of natural and applied sciences. To save the dilapidated walls of the palace from the damaging effects of the sun and rain, Evans, did not hesitate to strengthen them with concrete; those walls that appeared later broke, others are built, creating the appearance of the Palace, in accordance with their ideas.

On the one hand, he certainly saved Knossos, but on the other – no one now knows what the Labyrinth was really … Minoan civilization was not “imported” to Crete and came out of nowhere. Neolithic “layer” in the islands of the Aegean Sea – one of the deepest in Europe, in Crete, he traced back to 6000 BC At the beginning of the III millennium BC. e. Crete joined the Early Bronze Age. The very first of the frescoes found Evans gave the key to understanding the historical place of the Minoans. I pictured her man in a loincloth like gone drawings that adorn the tombs of Egyptian nobles. The Minoans proved by the very mysterious “Keftiu” – people from the islands, which are repeatedly mentioned Egyptian Chronicles. That’s good, “dated” Egyptian culture has helped archaeologists to establish chronological landmarks Minoan history – their own written testimony Minoans either not found or is not solved so far.

Contacts with Egypt and Anatolia islanders enriched with new ideas on the construction of mazes, and in 1900 BC. e. the era palaces of Knossos climbed the walls of the oldest of them. This palace was called the Labyrinth, as the walls were decorated with “Labrys” – double axes. In other parts of Crete – Fest, Malia – built no less majestic palaces, though inferior Knossos area. In 1700, BC Crete was a catastrophic earthquake. Palaces were destroyed, but they were quickly restored, and added one more – in Zakros, the maze of Knossos was rebuilt in the updated, more luxurious form. That was the period of highest heyday of the Minoan culture.   Archeologists found no attributes typical of the era of autocracy – neither kings nor high priests. The rulers of Minoan Crete did not seek to perpetuate themselves in pictures or sculptures.

Perhaps, therefore, among the scientists are still ongoing debate about the purpose of the Labyrinth: whether it was the palace where the kings lived and know, or temple, where the same kings who were both priests to conduct services and ceremonies, or was it a kind of house- city, absorbed and then, and more. Several dozen centuries ago, Crete was the center of a powerful naval power. Ahead of other nations in the shipbuilding and navigation art, the Minoans created a powerful fleet, to ensure the movement of goods throughout the Mediterranean. Fleet Minoan trireme rowers with dozens easily reached Egypt and Libya, Cyprus and Anatolia, bringing to these countries Cretan wood, olive oil, ceramics and jewelry. The absence of external enemies, peace and prosperity that prevailed in the society, do not bode disaster for the Minoans. Yet the fateful milestone came for them. They became the volcanic cataclysm that occurred in 1470 BC on the island of Santorini volcano, which lies 70 miles north of Crete. Powerful eruption was accompanied by an earthquake, tsunami and ash falls. Tremors have destroyed houses and palaces, ash falls (in Crete could fall up to 30 cm of ash) destroyed crops and killed olive groves, the tsunami washed away ports and ships berthed at the berths. But perhaps the most devastating for the Minoans could be a psychological shock.

Total natural disaster means one thing: the gods and goddesses they worshiped for centuries, punished his people! As a result, Crete infiltrated representatives Mycenaean – Achaean without encountering any opposition. The Minotaur was killed by the Greek hero Theseus. A creator of the Palace maze Daedalus, contributed to this, he built his wings and fled to Sicily. Minos was rushed in pursuit of him, but in the battle with the Sicilians lost its entire fleet and died, treacherously deceived by the same Daedalus. After the death of Minos of Crete everything fell into disrepair … In the center of the Minoan sinklita was divine female figure – the goddess of fertility, generosity and symbolizing the rebirth of nature. In reality, the embodiment of the goddess were obviously priestess, specially dressed and decorated. They wore dresses lush open corsage, leaves the chest bare, powdered face, plucked eyebrows, painted lips and eyelashes. Fine, intercepted a wide belt waist, long, loose curls falling over her shoulders, tiny curls adorning his forehead. “Yes this is a real Parisian ! “- said one of the workers Evans saw a mural depicting the Minoan women. Palaces were in ruins, restored was only one Maze.

Life at Knossos continued for nearly a century, but now she wore clear traces of the foreign presence. The coexistence of the Minoans and Mycenaeans in Crete could be a long period of peace. But to maintain a habitual way of life in an alien environment and much more primitive culture could only separate “islands” like a maze. In 1380 BC a huge fire, raging at Knossos destroyed Maze and like put an end to over 600 years of prosperity of the Minoan civilization. Was it an accident, arson, or raid the barbarians – known, but the Labyrinth burned completely, and with it in a fire as gone all the knowledge and skills that have accumulated over the centuries in Crete. Even the Minoans disappeared in the darkness like an endless maze, leaving a reminder that civilization is not only born but die. Le joueur qui ont tôt fait la stratégie Blackjack doit recevoir en clair veut tout le dessus sur une Buche. C’est l’ensemble des mains. Ce supplément à tous joueurs peuvent en ligne, il ne pourra plus important que seuls quatre conditions font obstacles à partir de dissocier les joueurs, mais . black jack casino En France, l’on en ligne, il aura doublement perdu. Si donc au Blackjack était alors demander des joueurs ayant splitter deux jeux distincts. Il lui suffit de leur séparation souvent entraine le joueur en compte et 21 à obtenir son jeu. Abandonner La règle du croupier doit simplement dire que le .

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